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Dhundiraj Govind Phalke ( Dadasaheb Phalke) Father of Movie Creation

Dhundiraj Govind Phalke ( Dadasaheb Phalke) Father of Movie Creation Gender: Male
Date of birth: 30 Apr 1870
Date of birth: 16 Feb 1944
Age: 73

Father of Movie Creation - Dhundiraj Govind Phalke ( Dadasaheb Phalke) Biography 1870–1892: Early life and education Dhundiraj Phalke was born on 30 April 1870 at Trimbak, Maharashtra (then Bombay Presidency) into a Marathi-speaking Chitpavan Brahmin family. His father, Govind Sadashiv alias Dajishastri, was a Sanskrit scholar and worked as a priest conducting religious ceremonies and his mother, Dwarkabai, was a housewife. The couple had seven children, three sons and four daughters. Shivrampant, the eldest, was twelve years elder than Phalke and worked in Baroda. He briefly worked as the Dewan (Chief Administrator) of the princely state of Jawhar and died in 1921, at the age of 63. Phalke's second brother, Raghunathrao, also worked as priest and died at a young age of 21. Dajishastri taught Phalke to conduct religious rituals like yajna and dispensing of medicines. When he was appointed as a professor of Sanskrit in the Wilson College, Mumbai, the family shifted its base to Mumbai (then Bombay). Phalke completed his primary education in Trimbakeshwar and matriculation was done in Mumbai. Phalke joined the Sir J. J. School of Art, Mumbai in 1885 and completed a one-year course in drawing. At the beginning of 1886, he accompanied his elder brother, Shivrampant, to Baroda where he got married to a girl from Marathe family. Later, he joined Kala Bhavan, the Faculty of Fine Arts, at the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and completed a course in Oil painting and Watercolor painting in 1890. He also achieved proficiency in architecture and modelling. In the same year, Phalke bought a film camera and started experimenting with photography, processing, and printing. He was awarded a gold medal for creating a model of an ideal theatre at the 1892 Industrial Exhibition of Ahmedabad. While his work was much appreciated, one of his fans presented him a "costly" camera, used for still photography. In 1891, Phalke did a six-months course to learn the techniques of preparing half-tone blocks, photo-lithio, and three-colour ceramic photography. Principal Gajjar of Kala Bhavan sent Phalke to Ratlam to learn three- colour blockmaking, photolitho transfers, colotype and darkroom printing techniques under the guidance of Babulal Varuvalkar. 1893– 1910: Early career In 1893, Gajjar allowed Phalke to use the photo studio and laboratory of Kala Bhavan where he started his work under the name of "Shri Phalke's Engraving and Photo Printing". Despite his proficiency in various skills, he did not have a stable family life and had difficulties in making a living. Thus, in 1895, he decided to become a professional photographer and relocated to Godhra for doing business. His business did not do well in Godhra and he lost his wife and a child in the 1900 plague epidemic in the city. Phalke returned to Baroda and started photography business. It did not run well because of the myth spread across the city that the camera sucks up the energy from a person's body which leads to their death. He faced similar resistance from the Prince of Baroda who refused to take photographs with the assumptions that it would shorten his life. Though, the Prince was later convinced by Phalke who went on to advocate the benefits of photography in his court, it did not help Phalke's business. He started the business of painting the stage curtains for the drama companies. This got him some basic training in drama production and fetched him a few minor roles in the plays. Phalke learned magic tricks from a German magician who was on a tour in Baroda that time. This helped him use trick photography in his filmmaking. At the end of 1901, Phalke began to hold the public performances of magic using professional name of Professor Kelpha with letters of his last name in reverse order. In 1902, Phalke remarried to Saraswati Karandikar, niece of proprietor of Kirloskar Natak Mandali. In 1903, he got a job as a photographer and draftsman at the Archaeological Survey of India. However, not satisfied with the job, Phalke resigned in 1906 and set up a printing press at Lonavla under the name of "Phalke Engraving and Printing Works" with R. G. Bhandarkar as a partner. The press majorly worked for making photo-litho transfers for Ravi Verma Press, owned by painter Raja Ravi Varma. Later, it also started the work of halftone blockmaking and printing and tri-colour printing. With the growing business, the press was shifted to Dadar, Mumbai. Later in 1908, Purushottam Mavji replaced Bhandarkar as a partner and the press was renamed as "Laxmi Art Printing Works". Phalke went to Germany in 1909 to buy the necessary colour printing machinery. Though the printing business grew exponentially, the partners had increasing differences about the running of the press. Soon, Phalke decided to abandon the partnership, without availing any monetary benefits. 1911–1917: Filmmaking struggle, debut, and success Initial obstacles and London visit After quitting "Laxmi Art Printing Works", Phalke received multiple offers from various financiers to start another printing press but he did not accept any offers. On 14 April 1911, Phalke with his elder son Bhalchandra went to see a film, Amazing Animals, at the America India Picture Palace, Girgaon, Mumbai. Surprised at seeing animals on the screen, Bhalchandra informed his mother, Saraswatibai, about his experience earlier that day. None of the family members believed them, so Phalke took his family to see the film the next day. As it was Easter, the theatre screened a film about Jesus, The Life of Christ (1906) by the French director Alice Guy-Blaché instead. While watching Jesus on the screen, Phalke envisioned Hindu deities Rama and Krishna instead and decided to start in the business of "moving pictures". For the next one year, Phalke started collecting various film related material like catalogues, books, and movie making equipment from Europe. He bought a small film camera and reels and started showing movies at night, by focusing candle light on a lens and projecting the pictures on the wall. He watched movies every evening for four to five hours and was deprived of sleep. This put strain on his eyes and he developed cataract in both eyes. He continued working against the advice of taking rest and lost his sight completely. Ophthalmologist Dr. Prabhakar treated Phalke with the aid of three or four pairs of spectacles which helped him restore the eye sight. Phalke wished to go to London to get technical knowledge of filmmaking but had difficulties getting finances for his trip. With the help of Yashwantrao Nadkarni and Abasaheb Chitnis, he secured a sum of ten thousands by mortgaging his insurance policies worth twelve thousands. On 1 February 1912, he boarded a ship for London. At London, Phalke saw a nameboard of "Bioscope Cine-Weekly" near Piccadilly Circus. He was a subscriber of the weekly in India. He met its editor, Mr. Kepburn, and explained the purpose of his visit. Kepburn advised Phalke against the idea of filmmaking in India based on the unsuccessful attempts in England and suggested that the Indian climate might not be suitable as well. However, he was impressed with Phalke's dedication and introduced him to the film director, producer, and screenwriter Cecil Hepworth of Walton Studios. Hepworth allowed Phalke to visit all the departments of the studio and their workings along with the demonstration of filming. At the advice of Kepburn and Hepworth, he bought Williamson camera for fifty pounds and placed an order for Kodak raw film and a perforator. Phalke stayed in London for two weeks and returned to India on 1 April 1912. He founded "Phalke Films" on the same day. Film debut with Raja Harishchandra Main article: Raja Harishchandra Dadasaheb Phalke After coming back from London, Phalke started looking for a spacious place for shooting the films. Soon, the family shifted from Ismail Building, Charni Road to Mathura Bhavan Bungalow, Dadar. He constructed a small glass room at the compound of the bungalow and prepared a dark room and arrangements for processing the film. Imported filmmaking equipment reached Mumbai in May 1912 and Phalke set it up within four days with the help of sketch provided. He also taught his family to perforate and develop the film. To test the working of camera and projector, Phalke filmed the boys and girls in the surroundings to the satisfactory results. To demonstrate the filmmaking techniques and get financier for the feature film, Phalke decided to make a short film. He planted some peas in a pot and placed a camera in front of it. He shot one frame a day for over a month producing a film just over one minute, of the seed growing, sprouting, and changing into a climber. The short film titled Ankurachi Wadh (Growth of a Pea Plant) and was showed selective individuals. Some of them, including Yashwantrao Nadkarni and Narayanrao Devhare, offered Phalke a loan. Phalke decided to make a film based on the legends of Harishchandra and wrote the script for it. He published advertisements in various newspapers like Induprakash calling for the cast and crew required for the film. As no women were available to play female leads, male actors performed the female roles. Dattatraya Damodar Dabke played the lead role of King Harishchandra and Anna Salunke as Queen Taramati. Phalke's elder son Bhalchandra was assigned the role, Rohitashva, son of Harishchandra and Taramati.[36] Phalke was in-charge of the scriptment, direction, production design, make-up, editing, and film processing and Trymbak B. Telang handled the camera. The filming was completed in six months and 27 days producing a film of 3,700 feet (1,100 m), about four reels. The film premiered at the Olympia Theatre, Mumbai on 21 April 1913, and had its theatrical release on Saturday, 3 May 1913 at the Coronation Cinema, Girgaon, Mumbai. It was a commercial success and laid the foundation for the film industry in the country.[39][40] The film is often considered the first full-length Indian feature film with its status debated with historians considering Dadasaheb Torne's silent film Shree Pundalik, released on 18 May 1912, the maiden Indian film.[41][42] The Government of India recognises Raja Harischandra as the first Indian feature film. After the success of Raja Harishchandra, Phalke relocated to Nashik. For his next film, he selected the mythological love story of Nala, a king of Nishada Kingdom, and Damayanti, a princess of the Vidarbha Kingdom. In spite of completing the pre-production, the filming could not start so he started working on Mohini Bhasmasur, based on a mythological story of Mohini, female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, and Bhasmasura, an asura (demon). During the same time, a travelling drama company, Chittakarshak Natak Company, visited Nashik. Phalke requested its proprietor, Raghunathrao Gokhle, to allow two of their actresses to act in the film. Durgabai Kamat was cast as Parvati and her daughter Kamlabai Gokhale as Mohini and became first women to act in the Indian cinema. The film was 3,264 feet (995 m) long and was released on 2 January 1914 at the Olympia Theatre, Mumbai. A short comedy film Pithache Panje (Paws of Flour) was released as a "side attraction" with the film. Phalke made his third film Satyavan Savitri based on the legends of Satyavan and Savitri. The film was 3,680 feet (1,120 m) long and was screened on 6 June 1914. Both the films were commercially successful like Raja Harishchandra. Second London visit, debt, and success with Lanka Dahan With the success of three films, Phalke was able to repay all his debts. There was huge demand for the film copies from various theater managers in the country. Considering the tremendous response to the films, he decided to buy electronic machinery worth around 30,000 and left for London on 1 August 1914, taking with him his three films. Mr. Kepburn of "Bioscope Cine-Weekly", who had helped Phalke during his first London visit, arranged some screenings of the films in London. The films were praised for their technical aspects. Various producers including Cecil Hepworth of Walton Studios requested Phalke to produce films in England. Hepworth placed an offer before Phalke to produce Indian films in England, bringing cast and crew from India whose expenses on travel, lodging and boarding, and salary would be paid by Hepworth. Phalke was offered a monthly salary of 300 pounds along with 20% of the profits. Phalke declined the offer and explained Hepworth that he would continue making films in India. Warner Brothers also offered to buy 200 film copies to which Phalke agreed. However, before the official agreements were to be signed, Phalke had to come back to India after the news about the worrisome condition of his studio. On returning to India, Phalke noticed that the financial condition has worsen due to ongoing World War I. His investor had stopped advancing the capital and asked to shut down the studio. He approached Yashwantrao Nadkarni and Abasaheb Chitnis for the loan to bring the equipment bought in London. They offered to pay half of the amount on short term basic. With the ongoing World War, Phalke also faced the scarcity of the raw films and decided to make a few short films. He received a loan on the security of studio and started working on Raja Shreeyal. Though filming started, it could not be completed due to various reasons. To get capital for his next film, Phalke approached the leaders of the Swadeshi movement without any luck. He also published an advertisement in the newspapers and distributed handbills, appealing for the help assuring the repayment with interest. However, only three people responded to the advertisement. One of them published a letter in the newspaper, Dainik Sandesh, appealing to the leaders of the Indian Home Rule movement who wanted Phalke to join the movement before any loan could be granted. Indian nationalist Lokmanya Tilak tried helping Phalke through Paisa Fund Glass Works but could not succeed. During 1916, Phalke undertook a tour to raise the capital. He screened his films at the princely states of Aundh, Gwalior, Indore, Jamkhandi, and Miraj. The King of Aundh granted ₹1,000 and the Princess of Indore provided a loan of ₹5,000 and ₹1,500 as a payment of his shows. While relocating from Mumbai to Nashik, the negative film of Raja Harishchandra was lost, so Phalke filmed it again with "almost the same script, cast and all other things" and released it as Satyavadi Raja Harishchandra, a 2,944 feet (897 m) long film which was screened on 3 April 1917 at Aryan Cinema, Pune. He also made a documentary "How Movies Are Made" to demonstrate the filmmaking process to the financiers but it did not help.[59] Phalke was invited for the session of the "Bombay Provincial Congress Parishad" held at Nashik in May 1917 where Lokmanya Tilak made an appeal to help him and also visited his studio at the request of G. S. Khaparde. The appeal made by Tilak had desired effect and Phalke could collect sufficient capital to start a new film, Lanka Dahan. The film depicted the episode of the burning of Lanka in the Ramayana and was 3,000 feet (910 m) long, about three reels. It was screened on 17 September 1917 at Aryan Cinema, Pune. Hindustan films Phalke formed a film company, Hindustan Films in partnership with five businessmen from Mumbai, in the hope that by having the financial aspect of his profession handled by experts in the field, he would be free to pursue the creative aspect. He set up a model studio and trained technicians and actors but, very soon, he ran into insurmountable problems with his partners. In 1920, Phalke resigned from Hindustan Films, made his first announcement of retirement from cinema, and he wrote Rangbhoomi, an acclaimed play. Without him in charge, Hindustan Films ran into deep financial losses, and he was finally persuaded to return. However, Phalke felt constrained by the business and, after directing a few films for the company, he withdrew from it. Sound film The times changed and Phalke fell victim to the emerging technology of sound film. Unable to cope with the talkies, the man who had fathered the Indian film industry became obsolete. His last silent film Setubandhan was released in 1932 and later released with dubbing. During 1936–1938, he produced his last film Gangavataran (1937) which was the only talking movie directed by Phalke, before retiring to Nashik, where he died on 16 February 1944.